Cystoscopy (uroendoscopy, urethroscopy) is a endoscopic diagnostic procedure in which an optical instrument, in the form of a probe with a camera at the top of it, is used to inspect the lining of the urethra and the bladder.


The doctor will do a cystoscopy if you have blood in the urine, complain about difficult or painful urination, you have an infection of any of the urinary tract organs (urethra, ureters or the bladder), suffer from incontinence, i.e. uncontrolled involuntary urination, or you have a persistent urge to urinate. It is very useful for diagnosing bladder inflammation (cystitis) or, in the worst case, urinary bladder cancer.


Women take the same position for the cystoscopy as they do for the gynecological examination. Before the examination, a nurse or technician will disinfect your intimate region. Your doctor will then inject gel into the urethra to lubricate it and make the procedure as comfortable, as possible, for you. Flexible cystoscope with a camera at the top is introduced along the mucous membrane of the urinary bladder, enters the bladder and fills it with a sterile liquid. This makes a full and detailed examination of the bladder and bladder mucose possible. In this way, degree of confidence in diagnosis of polyps(usually harmless growth of the bladder lining), tumors, injury or bladder stone is very high. The opening of the urethra in the bladder is carefully examined. The examination is moderately unpleasant.

In men, this examination is painless and very simple. A very small percentage of patients require anesthesia in order to have a cystoscopy performed – these are patients with advanced stages of different pathological conditions or anatomic malformations. If during an examination, a suspect tissue is found, the doctor will take a biopsy for histopathological tissue analysis.


Before the examination, you need to drink plenty of fluids in order to keep the bladder full. After consulting with the doctor, you might temporarily discontinue any medication that affects blood clotting (andol, marivarin, aspirin…). If you are positive for HIV virus, hepatitis B, C, D and E, or have any heart, kidney, lung condition or diabetes mellitus (diabetes), be sure to inform your doctor about this before the examination takes place!


Cystoscopy can lead to the following complications:

  • Urinary tract infection
  • Possible bleeding from the urethra or the bladder
  • Side effects from medication administered during examination
  • Coronary dysfunction
  • Sudden blood pressure drop

If after the cystoscopy you notice blood in the urine, measure body temperature above 38°C, experience pain and burning during urination, immediately inform your doctor


If your cystoscopy has been done in brief general anesthesia, you should stay in our hospital until the effects of the administered anesthetics fully wear off. You must have someone accompany you on this day because you are not allowed to drive home. In order to reduce bladder irritation, drink plenty of fluids to clear the bladder.